Absolutely everyone should know how the human papillomavirus is transmitted. More than half of the world's population is already a carrier of the papilloma virus. HPV is a special microorganism capable of reproducing in epithelial cells and preventing their division. More often activated in the body in women. Are people carrying the virus contagious and what are the routes of transmission? Only by having complete information about what are the ways of transmission of the virus, you can warn yourself and your loved ones of the infection. The main source of infection is the carrier of the HPV virus.
Among the mechanisms under the influence of which you can become infected, there are:
- vertical (from mother to child during childbirth).
The implementation of the contact mechanism is carried out through sexual and domestic-contact routes. Therefore, HPV can be transmitted through:
- handshake and kiss;
- the use of other people's hygiene products, including razor, washcloth, soap, towel and cosmetics;
- wear clothes that belong to the carrier of the infection;
- visiting public baths, saunas and swimming pools.
Oncogenic types of the virus are sexually transmitted. The risk of contagion increases many times in those people who are promiscuous in their partners. The more often they change, the greater the chance of infection, and even using a condom you can not be sure of its safety.
It can also be infected with homosexual relationships, since they are the ones that are characterized by lesions in the epithelium and mucous membranes. And a condom in this case does not help much either. The presence of warts on the body of a sexual partner also signals the possibility of acquiring HPV through microtrauma to the body.
Pregnant women who carry HPV should be aware of the possibility of infecting a child during their passage through the birth canal.
Infection takes place only in the presence of characteristic growths in the genital area and cervix. At the same time, papillomavirus infection in a child manifests itself in the form of growths in the larynx, which are particularly dangerous. It will be difficult for the baby to breathe and eat, perhaps even suffocate.
Conditions leading to infection
Contact with a person who is a carrier of HPV does not necessarily mean infection. Only if there are lesions on the skin and mucous membranes, the papillomavirus can enter the body. Consequently, HPV is much easier to infect if the skin has:
During sexual intercourse, it should be borne in mind that various types of skin lesions can be in the tissues adjacent to the genitals. By using a condom, infection can also be carried out.
The mucosa becomes vulnerable to infection with a depressed immune system. The appearance of papillomas and warts in the genital area is usually triggered by the presence of other infections in the body. If such growths are found, treatment should be carried out not only by the carrier of HPV, but also by her partner.
Violation of the microflora of the vagina in women and even the intestines in both sexes can also lead to a decrease in immunity, and, consequently, the papillomavirus enters the body more easily.
Even if the papillomavirus infection is already present in the body, you can not notice any of its manifestations. It is not at all necessary that growths appear on the body. Often the papilloma virus occurs in the latent stage and absolutely without symptoms.
HPV can be compared with the herpes virus, which is also present in the body of the majority of the population, but the characteristic symptoms on the body are far from always indicating its presence. With a strong immune system, the papilloma virus may not multiply.
Only under favorable conditions for the development of HPV infection does it begin to intensify. There is an active reproduction of virions in the nuclei of cells, which leads to disturbances in cell reproduction. Using human cells, the papillomavirus creates copies of itself. As a result, uncontrolled cell reproduction and the appearance of neoplasms in the body.
Conditions that cause the activation of the virus:
- exacerbation of any disease that can be called chronic;
- recent infectious diseases;
- the presence of an intestinal infection;
- congenital immunodeficiency;
- non-compliance with diet and diet;
- work in production, which belongs to the category of harmful;
- frequent stressful situations.
The activation of the virus can be caused by various factors that, to a greater or lesser extent, affect the state of the immune system. Only with depressed immunity, neoplasms appear on the body.
There are a number of preventive measures, so it is very likely that the human papillomavirus infection will not enter the body.
- any damage to the skin should be treated with antiseptics;
- use only personal hygiene products;
- in saunas, baths and public swimming pools it is necessary to wear rubber slippers;
- any illness must be treated in a timely manner;
- loyalty to a sexual partner who can be trusted;
- use a condom for any sexual intercourse. Although this does not guarantee safety, however, through a condom, the human papillomavirus enters the body of women and men less likely;
- regular exercise;
- body hardening;
- adherence to sleep and nutrition.
Such precautions must be taken not only to avoid HPV infection, but also other sexually transmitted infections. The condom provides a guarantee against infection of many diseases that cause the activation of the HPV virus.
In the case of the presence of a virus in the body of a pregnant woman and the manifestations of it in the genital area, a full examination and removal of such neoplasms is necessary. If there are papillomas on the genitals, a cesarean section is recommended for a woman to prevent infection of the child during passage through the birth canal.
There is a special vaccine against highly oncogenic virus strains, which is recommended mainly for women under 26 years of age and adolescents. Even under the condition that the HPV carrier himself is vaccinated, his immunity improves markedly, and the virus goes into an inactive phase.
At the same time, it should be borne in mind that the virus does not disappear from the body, and therefore the person remains a carrier of the infection. For safety reasons, you need to use a condom during sexual intercourse and use only personal hygiene products.
More prone to such manifestations of HPV as growths on the body of the female body. Her immune system is much weaker and does not resist the virus well. But at the same time, there is no reason to believe that a man should not worry about the presence of a virus. It also represents a threat, being a source of infection.
Any neoplasm in the body cannot be removed independently. All actions should be carried out only under the supervision of the attending physician.
Infection can be avoided. It is enough to follow personal hygiene, use a condom during sexual intercourse, carefully monitor your own skin and pay attention to the presence of growths on the body of loved ones.